Two opposing majestic architectural ensembles of Kosh (or Qosh) Madrasah were built in Bukhara during the reign of Sheibanid Abdullah Khan II (1557-1597). Modari Khan madrasah being the first, was built around 1567 in honor of Abdullah Khan’s mother. The second one bears the name of Abdullah Khan himself and was built in 1588-1590. The square located between the two madrasahs is considered one of the most beautiful squares in Bukhara and is located not far from the Ark of Bukhara and the Samanid Mausoleum park.
Modari Khan (1567)
Madrasah Modari Khan was built in praise of the mother of Abdullakhan II. In 1968, the monument celebrated its 400th anniversary. In the reports of one of the court historians Abdulla Khan, it is written: “The high tombs and raised domes that make it up and the upper and lower rooms and foundations from top to bottom were made firmly.” After the year’s later archaeologists have confirmed the statement that the “building is still firmly standing” for the 400th anniversary of the monument.
The building is placed at a specific angle to the road, so there is no exact symmetry in the ensemble. The main facade of the Modari-Khan madrasah is well decorated with tiles of multi-colored brick mosaics, which form various geometric patterns. The decoration of the facade is filled with tympanums made of painted majolica tiles, depicting flower buds. The entire artistic decoration of the madrasah appears fairly modest compared to others in Uzbekistan.
Abdullah Khan (1588-1590)
Abdallah Khan Madrasah (known as Abdullakon madrasah as well) was developed a little later after the Madrasah Modari Khan madrassah in 1589–1590. The madrasah includes two wings and a grand entrance portal. Entering inside you can observe a vast lecture hall covered with a magnificent dome. In terms of size, the Abdullah Khan madrasah is in third place among all schools in Bukhara (after the Kukeldash madrasah and the Miri-Arab madrasah).
The facades of this building are decorated with majolica of cool colors like blue, light blue, green, white and the colors are better observed from a distance. The ancient ornament in the walls of this educational institution shows the traditional Central Asian landscapes and provides the structure a colorful and pleasant appearance.
As in the Modari-khan madrasah, this building also contains classrooms for classes with the entrances directly from the street through special wooden doors. On the second floor of the Abdullah Khan madrasah, there is series of arched loggias, which is its distinctive feature, as usually only blind arches are located on the facades of such buildings.