Uzbek Music

Music of Uzbekistan

Music and musical instruments traveled along with vagrant musicians following caravans, and secrets of paper manufacture, iron coining and embossing also moved from country to country. Uzbek national music is described as a variety of subjects and genres. The songs and tool play according to their functions and forms of usage can be divided into two groups: performed at a certain time and under certain circumstances and performed at any time. 

History of Uzbek Music

The history of Uzbek music goes back to ancient times when many civilizations have emerged, developed, and eventually disappeared but left a deep mark on the history of the country’s and world’s culture. According to the monuments of the fine art old musical traditions emerged during the Kushan period by that time the musicians represented. It means that Kushans and Sogdians knew the basic types of musical instruments and used them both solo and in the ensemble. In the 10th century in Central Asia revived art and science. Cities like Samarkand, Bukhara, and others have become the leading cultural centers.  A big number of scientific and medical works were produced. Expositions on music by Farobi, Ibn-Sino, Khorezmi and Fakhruddin Ar-Razi achieved great value, becoming a part of European musical – theoretical science which underwent profound development in the subsequent era.

After Turkestan became part of tsarist Russia in the 19th century, the first attempts were taken to record national melodies of Turkestan. Russian musicians helped preserve these melodies by introducing musical notation in the region. In the 1950s, Uzbek folk music became less popular, and the genre was barred from radio stations by the Soviets. They did not completely dispel the music. Although banned, folk musical groups continued to play their music in their ways and spread it individually. After Uzbekistan gained independence from the USSR public interest revived in traditional Uzbek music. Nowadays Uzbek television and radio stations regularly play traditional music along the modern musics.

Contemporary music of Uzbekistan

In recent years, singers such as Yulduz Usmonova and Sevara Nazarkhan have brought Uzbek music to global audiences by mixing traditional melodies with modern rhythms and instrumentation. In the late 2000s, Ozodbek Nazarbekov emerged as a new popular singer who mixes contemporary music with elements of traditional Uzbek music. Moreover, many Uzbek singers such as Shahzoda and Sogdiana Fedorinskaya have achieved commercial success not only in Uzbekistan but also in other CIS countries such as Kazakhstan, Russia, and Tajikistan.

Uzbek Musical Instruments

Rubob

Rubab, robab or rabab in (Uzbek “Rubob”) is a lute-like musical instrument originally from central Afghanistan and Pakistan. It receives its name from the Arab rebab meaning “played with a bow” however Central Asian instrument is plucked and is distinctly different in composition. The rubab is mainly used by Uzbek, Pashtun, Tajik, Kashmiri and Iranian Kurdish classical musicians.

The rubab musical instrument is a short-necked lute, its body is carved out of a single piece of wood, with a membrane, covering the hollow bowl of the sound-chamber, upon which the bridge is positioned. It has three melody strings tuned in fourths, three drone strings and 11 or 12 sympathetic strings. The rubab is made from the trunk of a mulberry tree. The head of rubab is made from animal skin such as goat and the strings either gut (from the intestines of young goats, brought to the size of thread) or nylon.

The rubab is known as “the lion of instruments” and is one of the two national instruments of Afghanistan (with the zerbaghali). Classical Afghan music often features this instrument as a key component. The rubab is attested from the 7th century CE. It is mentioned in old Persian books, and many Sufi poets mention it in their poems. It is the traditional instrument of Khorasan and today it is widely used in countries such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, Kashmir, Tajikistan, India and Uzbekistan.

Dutor

The dutar is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Iran, Central Asia and South Asia. In the Uzbek language called “dutor” also written as dotar or doutar. Typical sizes for the pear-shaped instrument range from one to two meters. The dutar has a warm and dulcet tone. 

durat uzbek national instrument

Dutar name comes from the Persian word for “two strings” (do “two”, tar “string”), although the Herati dutar of Afghanistan has fourteen strings. When played, the strings are normally plucked by the Uyghurs of Western China and strummed and plucked by the Tajiks, Turkmen, Uzbeks, Afghan people, and in Pakistan. 

A related instrument is played by the Baul community of West Bengal and Bangladesh and is called dotar. Dutar’s strings were made from gut at the beginning of 15 the century in hands of shepherds. With the coming of the Silk Road, the strings were made from twisted silk. Today the instruments still have silk or nylon strings.

Tanbur

The term Tanbur, Tanbura, Tambur, Tambura or Tanboor is a long-necked, string instrument originating in Southern or Central Asia (Mesopotamia and Persia/Iran). The Uzbek tanbur has four metal strings that run over a small loose bridge to a bit of wood at the edge of the body. Tanbur is always played with a wire plectrum on the index finger. Its body is carved from a hollowed-out piece of mulberry wood, and the front is made from mulberry. Its neck is often decorated with inlay bone or white plastic.

The origin of the tanbur goes back to ancient times. One study has identified the name “tanbur” as being derived from “pandur” a Sumerian term for long-necked lutes. Tanburs have been present in Mesopotamia since the Akkadian era, or the third millennium BCE. Three figurines have been found in Susa that belongs to 1500 BCE, and in hands of one of them is a tanbur-like instrument. Also, an image on the rocks near Mosul that belong to about 1000 BCE shows tanbur players. Playing tanbur was common at least in the late Parthian era and all Sassanid period because the word ‘tanbur’ is used in Middle Persian and Parthian language texts for instinct in Drakht-i Asurig, Bundahishn, Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan, and Khosrow and Ridag. In the tenth century CE Al-Farabi described two types of tanburs found in Persia, a Baghdad tunbur, distributed south and west of Baghdad, and a Khorasan tunbur. This distinction may be the source of modern differentiation between Arabic instruments, derived from the Baghdad tunbur, and those found in northern Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sindh and Turkey, from the Khorasan tunbur.

The Persian name spread widely, eventually taking in Long-necked string instruments used in Central Asian music such as the Dombura and the classical Turkish tambur as well as the Kurdish tembur. Until the early twentieth century, the names chambar and jumbush were applied to instruments in northern Iraq. In India, the name was applied to the tanpura (tambura), a fretless drone lute. Tanbur traveled through Al-Hirah to the Arabian Peninsula and in the early Islam, period went to the European countries. Tanbur was called ‘tunbur’ or ‘tunbureh/tunbura’ in Al-Hirah, and in Greek it was named tambouras, then went to Albania as tampura, in Russia it was named domra, in Siberia and Mongolia as dombra, and in Byzantine Empire was named pandura/bandura. It traveled through Byzantine Empire to other European countries and was called pandura, mandura, bandura, etc.

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